April 1996 – June 1997


Landuse Specialist,



Based in Samarinda, East Kalimantan (Borneo)


Dag Hammarskjold Weg, 1- 5

Eschborn 65726


General Description

This Asian Development Bank funded project was staffed by GTZ (Germany) and ITCS (Netherlands) working within the National Land Agency (Badan Pertanahan Nasional - BPN). The objective of the study was to develop modern methods of land use mapping for use by BPN and to train Regional and Central government staff of BPN to adopt the methodology.

Methodology included:

  •  use of aerial photographs for planning fieldwork and for field investigations

  • use of satellite imagery for similar purposes and, in particular, for updating land use information

  • development of the ILUD (Indonesian Land Use Databank) system - a digital system for recording and manipulating the data with the automatic production of maps at 1:25,000 and 1:50,000 scale via ARcInfo 

Refer ILUD

The author and the Information Systems Specialist spent some time setting up data transfer systems via email for transmission of completed maps from the Provinces to HQ (Pusat) in Jakarta - this allowed a map that was completed, in say Manado, to be sent to and printed out in Jakarta the same day.

There were Regional Offices in Bali (Bali and Timor), Manado and Ujung Pandang (Sulawesi), Samarinda (Kalimantan) and Jakarta (Java). The Kalimantan Region was supervised from Samarinda and regular visits to the other provinces were made and training courses regularly run for BPN staff.

The Regional Landuse Planner in Samarinda and Bali set up a system of quality assessment (Quality Control) for project output.

An extract from an ILUD map is shown on the right whilst sections of the information from the legend is shown below.


Author's Input:

Based in Samarinda, Kalimantan Timur, as Landuse Specialist and Kalimantan Regional Manager for the second Land Resources Evaluation and Planning Project with GTZ.

Working with a local consultant strengthening the Regional and Provincial staff of BPN (Badan Pertanahan Nasional / National Land Agency) with modern, computerised methods of landuse mapping, including use of API, database, Satellite Imagery, Arc/Info and ERDAS materials. All landuse data and maps created were collated in the Indonesia Land Use Databank (ILUD).  During the input worked closely with the Information Systems Specialist in developing the transfer of maps as email attachments from the provinces to BPN Head Office in Jakarta.

Helped design and present On-the-Job Training courses in all the Provinces of Kalimantan and in Sulawesi to fill-in when other staff left project early. Specific places being: Pontianak in Kalimantan Barat, Palangkarya in Kalimantan Tengah and Banjar Baru in Kalimantan Selatan. In Sulawesi the courses were done in Manado.

Developed a system for Assessing and Recording the reliability of the Land Use Maps produced by Project with the aim of designing Quality Control procedures for the Client. Introduced senior staff to Quality Control checking procedures. BPN likely to adopt or adapt the system for national use.


An extract from the legend of a typical LREPP landuse Map is given below:

Quality Assessment Checklist:

The Landuse Specialists in Bali and Samarinda cooperated to produce the Quality Assessment Checklist as a tool to assist senior staff and supervisors in BPN check and control the output by staff. The Checklist comprised 2 Forms:

  • Form 1 related to desk study (API etc) and actual field work.
  • Form 2 related to the situation after the data had been input into the GIS and DBMS (ILUD) system.

In the "Checklist" various stages of the work were studied and outputs noted then a score given based on assessment of the outputs.  If the score fell below a certain level staff were then duty bound to repeat or revise the work until the required standard was achieved.

Form 2 has 11 Sections, the last Section relates to dissemination of data, back-up of data and computer maintenance after completion of tasks.

Senior staff in BPN, eg Pimbagro, were shown how to use the Check list in order that they themselves could execute simple routines and see for themselves if, in fact, junior staff were doing the work they reported as having been done.


  • Guidelines for Using the Work Progress and Quality Assessment Checklist. (With Tom Loran). (1996)
  • Final (Regional) Report [Draft}, Region 2, Kalimantan. (June 1997)
  • Creation of Shortcuts in MS Office 95 for use with Specific Modules of ILUD (September 1997)
  • Project Evaluation, Region 2, Kalimantan (June 1997)

All reports are held by BPN Jakarta (Refer means of contact on ILUD Home Page) and by GTZ in Eschborn.

Several now available on WOSSAC


Rented a house in Samarinda, where it was necessary to use the basics of Bahasa Indonesia learned many years previously. When not working spent a lot of time exploring the town and environs by bicycle, the bicycle being stolen the day before departure at the end of input. Earned a bit of a reputation as "super fit SuperMini" running on the Samarinda Hash House Harriers. Hash runs were not so much runs as out-and-out survival sessions in the jungle - unlike some of the locals never did have to overnight in the forest after getting lost. Had one unfortunate incident when returning with the Hash from a weekend special upriver - river transport was proving so slow all got off in Kotabangung and a bus was hired! Big mistake, as the driver turned out to be "high", and within 30 minutes the bus had overturned and the whole group injured or badly shaken - the driver did a runner. A very long night spent waiting for assistance - the police would not / could not come out as they had no transport - but we all got home at around 9:00 am the next day when someone hired another bus in Samarinda and came and got us. Several people ended up in hospital but all survived and most did run again.

One of the final tables from the Checklist is shown below.


The table below specifies some specific actions to take as a result of the checks done against one specific map.


Notes (Numbers refer to numbers in brackets in above table)


Action required


1.  Q-cover DELETE " TOL"  file before using ILUDARC 

Land Use

One dangling NODE located


Re-do node check and delete "dangle"

Data Entry

2. Two (2) POLYGONS with NO LABEL


Delete error polygon, SE corner

SW Area

Add LABEL for E22


3. No data available for adjoining map sheets


Compile Map 1915-412



Compile Map 1915-143

4. On screen map shows BLANK / BLACK Polygons


Split large polygons


Add labels




Reprocess map

PROJECT EVALUATION, Austin Hutcheon, Land Use Specialist, REGION 2 KALIMANTAN, 24 June 1997


This evaluation of the LREPP_II/B Project is compiled solely by the expatriate Land Use Specialist of Region 2 after only 15 months on the Project and with 14 months actual experience of working in Region 2, plus a short input in Region 5. Opinions expressed etc. are the personal opinions of the author, may well seem critical at times, any criticism offered is an attempt at constructive criticism and must be treated as such and in full confidence.


5.1 Software Packages / Computers / Etc.

There are many staff in the Provinces well skilled in the use of the main software packages associated with the LREPP programme, the packages being Arc/Info and ERDAS. This reflects the success of the training courses presented and the effort made by the staff of BPN offices, but it should be recognised that many of the staff had been involved with previous projects such as LUPAM and hence could already use the software.

However, many of the staff have used the likes of Arc/Info for so long they were / are unwilling to use the modules developed under ILUD. To some of the staff using the ILUD modules perhaps seems like a backward step when they were / are well able to use the software directly. However, there are many staff who have no skills in Arc/Info but they can compile and process data and maps using the ILUD Modules and every effort should be made in the future to encourage all staff to use the modules. If this is done then there will be much more uniformity or standardisation in the output.

Introduction of Windows 95 during the life of the project did involve the Information Systems Specialist in a fair bit of extra work to allow the ILUD Modules to run under Windows 95. Now that all routines can be run from Win95 all processing is much faster than it was, a fact that helps prevent staff looking for timesaving shortcuts. However, it does mean that some effort needs to be made to ensure that any replacement computers are of a high enough specification to make full use of the capabilities of Windows 95. Also the machines must be well set-up and that the technical staff know how to use Win 95 to full advantage. For example, in many cases where there have been complaints that ILUD can not run on the computers because of lack of memory it has often been found that simplifying the computer set-up and removing "third party" memory managers has transformed the performance of the machines.

5.3 Computer Housekeeping

Staff in the provinces are still not fully aware of the need to do basic housekeeping on their computers on a regular basis. One way round this might be to ensure that Microsoft Plus for Windows 95 is installed and that the utilities like Scandisk and Defragmenter are scheduled to run automatically. Similarly, it might be investigated if the ILUDUTL module for housekeeping could be made to run on an automatic basis perhaps once a week or at the end of any Arc/Info or ILUD session exceeding say 1 hour or after a certain number of modules have been used.

Also, the use of TOOLS in Windows Explorer (File manager) should be encouraged to look for "dummy" T$ARC directories created by Arc/Info. These dummy directories do use up a lot of disk space and cause problems.

6.2 Teamwork

Perhaps during the early stages of Project, say the first 2 to 3 months, the Consultant’s Team should have all been based in one place and operated like a survey team to try and test some of the systems being proposed by executing a few minor studies as a team. This way the various skills, and weaknesses, of individual people could have been recognised and plans made accordingly.

Similarly, during the life of Project, regular working get-togethers would have been advantageous. Such gatherings are normally done on long-running studies, especially where study areas are far apart and standardisation is required. These correlation meetings, or circuses, can be of great help to all members of the team and can help team members with questions and doubts discuss and resolve any problems. Such meetings could be regarded as "workshops" but would be spent actually working on and in a specific area and, possibly, problem.

By seeing how other members of the team were operating it would have assisted other staff to assess:

6.4 Training Courses (OJTs)

By and large it would appear as though the training courses, OJTs, did succeed in the transfer of technology and skills from the Consultants to the Client’s staff. However, it is quite possible that the methods used were not always appropriate.

In some cases it appears as though the "lecture room" approach was adopted and with some of the communication difficulties, allied with new methodologies and techniques, this may well not have been the best way. The author did receive a few comments about staff having been "lectured-at" on some previous courses and that often things moved too quickly and many items were not properly understood.

True On-the-Job-Training has to be much more of a one-to-one working relationship, or at least in as small groups as is possible. One possible scenario could have been:

The above approach would have led to much more uniformity and standardisation.

6.5 Speed of Development

Sometimes it is felt that the whole process moved too quickly into High Technology and the question might be asked if Staff could really produce Land Use Maps via the Traditional Method using aerial photographs and satellite imagery. One does not have to use digital methods and the situation could arise where the basic materials (Aerial Photos and Images) might be still be available but the Hi-Tech tools, as instituted by project, might not be available. Would the staff be able to go out and produce an acceptable product by combining the original BPN field survey routines based on API but then not having the assistance of computers?

A good knowledge of the full traditional BPN methodology, but based on interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite images, would certainly make the staff more aware of the advantages of fully utilising the Hi-Tech tools made available to them under the LREPP studies.

6.7 Feed-back and Communications

If more use of the ILUD modules had been made by all staff and there had been more regular feed-back of problems etc. to the Information System Specialist the ILUD modules would have developed more quickly and further. By using any system, development is achieved and the ISS was always very willing to try to incorporate new routines and remove "bugs" whenever he was informed.

Communications between the various Regional offices and with Pusat was greatly enhanced once email links were set-up but, even with the links, communications were often less than perfect. Many times this was due to the telephone system, often due to the supplier (server) having difficulties but sometimes due to lack of time or staff to check the mail system. Perhaps in future the secretaries in all offices should have the task of checking the mail system at least once a day – whether the main user is present or not. This, of course, does depend on which computer has the email link – in the Regions this was on a laptop and during Duty Visits getting on line could often prove impossible. With the development of the mobile telephone system the next time perhaps the links could be made through a mobile.

7.3 Upgrading Hardware

Effort needs to be made to ensure that any replacement computers are of a high enough specification to make full use of the capabilities of Windows 95 and that the machines are well set-up and that the technical staff know how to use Win 95 to full advantage. For example, in many cases where there have been complaints that ILUD can not run on the computers because of lack of memory it has often been found that simplifying the computer set-up and removing "third party" memory managers has transformed the performance of the machines.

7.4 Automatic Housekeeping

It might be investigated if the ILUDUTL module for housekeeping could be made to run on an automatic basis perhaps once a week or at the end of any Arc/Info or ILUD session exceeding say one hour or after a certain number of modules have been used. Similarly, automatic running of Scandisk and Defrag should be set-up.

7.5 ILUD Modules

To the adventurous computer user new modules of ILUD are usually quite simple to use and understand. But the less adventurous and less adept computer user is often unaware that the new module exists, what it does and / or how to use it. Clear instructions (possibly with worked models) for all ILUD modules should be produced in both Bahasa Indonesia and English to clearly show staff what the module is for and how to use it.

The "Automatic Matrix" produced via the Module ILUDLIST (Correlation) should have the "Macro" re-written to allow the production of the matrix in Excel. MS Excel now being the most commonly used spreadsheet and this programme is installed in all of the Region 2 offices and many others according to information to hand.

7.6 ILUD Library

Project has compiled and published many manuals and guidelines but in many Provincial offices when the manual is asked for all knowledge of it is denied. A library should be set-up in each provincial office and all publications should be documented. Included in the library should be:


8.6 Austin Hutcheon (Self Assessment)

The late arrival on the scene as an expatriate team member but the ability to pick-up the use of ILUD software relatively quickly had its rewards.

Originally did not undertake to present OJTs following discussions between various parties and feedback comments regarding "lack of communication" on previous OJTs. With hindsight not getting involved in presentation of OJTs at an earlier date was probably a mistake – communication does not depend on language skills.

Did not have the time to develop anything beyond very basic skills in the use of Arc/Info, this has not proved a problem. The author was then forced to use the ILUD modules and was able to demonstrate that the ILUD procedures did work, and that they worked well.

Has developed no skills at all in the use of ERDAS and has not even "fired-up" the programmes. This was a conscious decision since the Indonesia Consultant, Amran Achmad, was highly skilled in the use of ERDAS and the regional team decided that time could not really be spent by AAH in learning to use ERDAS in the relatively short time available. Amran Achmad handled all the Regional ERDAS OJTs and Remote Sensing problems.

The main input from AAH was the development of the system for checking land use maps produced via the LREPP-II/B programme, the Quality Assessment Checklist.


All reports are held by BPN Jakarta (Refer means of contact on ILUD Home Page) and by GTZ in Eschborn (Some copies now on WOSSAC).