Draft Final Report for JAZZP Extension 2000

1.1 Introduction and Background

 The main purpose of the Jordan Arid Zone Productivity Project (JAZPP) during 1995-98 was to provide the scientific basis for the sustainable use of land and water resources in the Badia transition zone receiving 100 – 200 mm of average annual rainfall. A major task of the project was to test a wide range of production techniques by means of experiments and field trials on research stations. As a result, a number of promising production systems involving different water harvesting techniques were brought to a stage where they were ready for on-farm testing.

 Another major task was to develop methods of land use planning based on detailed evaluation of land and water resources, followed by analysis of land suitability for the proposed production systems. This was achieved by the establishment of a comprehensive database for the Project area and the application of GIS techniques to land use planning.  Methods for monitoring past and future changes in land use and vegetation by remote sensing were also developed. Further information about JAZPP can be found in:

As the funding agency of JAZPP, the European Commission appointed an independent consultant to carry out a review of Project from 18th March – 11th April 1998. The present extension is consistent with the reviewer’s conclusion that Project should be extended for two years for the purpose of verifying the recommendations generated by JAZPP and developing an extension methodology. (Improvement of Agricultural Productivity in Arid and Semi-Arid Zones of Jordan. Project No: SEM/03/628/021. Mid-Term Review Final Report. Ernst Grenzebach, LUSO CONSULT GmbH, Hamburg, May 1998).

In fact a start was made on on-farm testing during the life of JAZPP (1995-1998), and this revealed some of the difficulties to be expected. For example, farmers in the Badia transition zone are reluctant to invest effort in unproven techniques. Furthermore, the recommended techniques are very different from current land use practices in the zone. Even the technical specialists responsible for the recommendations were sometimes reluctant to expose their research to on-farm testing.  The complex and changing land ownership pattern also pose problems.

As a result of learning to face these obstacles, JAZPP was in a good position to plan a collaborative programme of on-farm testing by the University of Jordan, the Ministry of Agriculture and the farmers themselves. The original plan was to run the Programme Extension immediately after the end of JAZPP, that is from July 1999 to June 2001, thus covering two full production cycles. Approval for the Programme Extension was slow and it was not implemented until July 2000.  However, further unexpected delays coincided with the planned start date with the untimely death of the JAZPP Research Coordinator. Delays were then experienced until a Project Adviser could be appointed.

1.2 Components of the Programme Extension 2000-2001 

The Programme Extension has three components, all concerned with translating the findings of JAZPP  (1995-1998) into better production and planning practices in the Badia transition zone.  The components are briefly outlined below.

1.2.1 On-farm Testing of Recommended Production Techniques

Appropriate technology levelling pre-ploughing to establish the contour

Diamond micro-catchment design

As a result of research during JAZPP, and the Muwaqar Project before it, a number of production techniques for sustainable development based on water harvesting were recommended for on-farm testing:

         i.            Micro-catchments (run-off basins) for fruit trees

        ii.            Contour furrows with fodder shrubs, with or without barley between the furrows

      iii.            Water spreading on gently sloping, deep soils adjacent to wadis or stream lines

      iv.            Small earth dams for irrigation of forage and fruit trees and  / or sale of water.

Test centres were to be established in three basic zones covering the northern, central and southern parts of the Badia with the aim of having at least one replicate in each zone. Details of the zones are to be found in Section 2.1.2 and of the actual sites in Section 2.3.  

      Design of bunds or walls to trap / slow-down water flow on slopes

Ploughing the bunds for diamond design catchments

1.2.2 Development of Extension Methodology

It is already known that extension of JAZPP recommendations in the Badia transition zone will need a very different approach to the extension of more standard packages in better agricultural land such as the Jordan Valley and the Highlands.  Reasons for this include:

i.                     Some of the techniques can only be applied to relatively large areas of land

ii.                    The land in question may have multiple owners

iii.                  The recommended techniques are still at an early stage of development and economic returns are uncertain

iv.                  The techniques represent a more radical change of land use than, for example, the introduction of new inputs such as fertilizers or machinery into existing agricultural systems. 

Previous on-farm tests established in Mohai and Muwaqar during JAZPP supplied some important insight of the requirements for successful tests but were too few and inconclusive for the development of extension messages.

The efforts made during this programme extension are detailed in Section 7.

1.2.3 Transfer of Land Evaluation and Planning Techniques to MoA

The Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) is expected to be the main user of the land evaluation and land use planning methods developed by JAZPP for the Badia transition zone. To enable the MoA to make use of the JAZPP system, a transfer of the know-how must take place from the University of Jordan to Ministry of Agriculture staff.  Once the transfer of the know-how has been done the Ministry of Agriculture could apply the methodology anywhere in Jordan.

The steps taken to effect the transfer are detailed in Section 8.

1.3 Objectives of the On-Farm Test Programme

1.3.1 Aim of the On-farm Test Programme

Virtually all the practical work on testing the technology or methods developed by JAZPP to date has been done on research stations such as Muwaqar and Khanasri. The present aim is to test the systems developed by JAZPP in the real world, that is on farmers’ fields with all the normal difficulties and constraints experienced by farmers.

However, it must be understood that what was being done was supplying ideas, methods and assistance with advice and training in the new methods.  JAZPP responsibility was to get the interventions installed but, afterwards, the participating farmers had to be responsible for executing most of the work involved in maintenance and protection – only in this way could it be demonstrated that the systems work for normal farmers.

1.3.2 What We (JAZPP) Were Looking For

The intention was to test the systems found by the researchers to offer the best success possible.  The brief for the programme was to test:

Table 1.1   Land Utilisation Types (LUTs) To Be Tested

LUT 3

MICROCATCHMENTS for growing fruit trees, such as olives.

LUT 4

CONTOUR planting of Atriplex to help re-establish grazing / browse species on steeper slopes, some sites could have barley grown in between the rows of Atriplex.

LUT 5

WATER SPREADING in marabs / wadis, where the wadi flow would be forced out of the wadi bed on the land lying adjacent to the wadi.

LUT 6 & 7

Small EARTH DAMS for irrigated field crops and / or water supply.

1.4 Initial Activities

1.4.1 Introduction

As pointed out above (Section 1.1) there were delays in the start up of the Project Extension and it was not possible to commence activities at the beginning of July 2000.  The Project Adviser was only appointed in July and had other commitments that prevented his taking up full duties until September 2000.  However, the Project Adviser did make a three-week visit to Project during July 2000 to be briefed on activities and to gain background information. During this visit courtesy calls and briefing visits were made to several offices and staff, a rapid field tour was undertaken to existing and possible test sites and the basis of a system to select and monitor tests sites was discussed with project staff and drafted.

A start-up workshop was then planned and implemented.

1.4.2 Meetings and Courtesy Calls

Meetings, discussions and courtesy calls were held / made with the following to help establish contact, cooperation and gain background.

Office or Person

Reason for Contact

Commission of the European Community

Courtesy call on donor

Jihad Mustafa Abu Mishrif

Courtesy call on JAZPP liaison officer in MoA

Project Manager, JAZPP

Project background

Dr Darius Campbell, DFID Livestock Project

Background on experiences with respect to extension

Jordan Cooperative Association, Ma’an

Discussions on cooperation and location of likely test sites

Jordan Cooperative Association, Tafila

Discussions on cooperation and location of likely test sites

Conservation and Sustainable Use of Dryland Agro-biodiversity Project

Discussions on cooperation and location of likely test sites

JAZPP Counterparts

Background, programme and methods etc.

Mr Bakr al Qudah, Range Department, MoA

Discussions on eventual transfer of JAZPP system to MoA

Mr Amjad Rihani, Previous NSM&LUP, MoA

Discussions on eventual transfer of JAZPP system to MoA

1.4.3 Field Visits

The Project Adviser and the Extension Specialist undertook a rapid field tour, in mid-July 2000.  The purposes of this tour was for acquainting the Project Adviser with existing locations, first sight of existing interventions on the ground and testing the first draft of JAZPP designed computer compatible data recording proforma.  Locations visited are given in Table 1.2 where details of the purpose and outcome of the visit are also included.

Table 1.2               Locations Visited in Familiarisation Period

Location

Purpose

Outcome

Muwaqar Station

View interventions and other experiments on the ground.

Suggestions made regarding the clearance of vegetation from the on-station earth dams.

Khanasri Station

View on-station demonstrations of interventions, in particular contours with barley

Compared vegetative growth on station (fenced) with unfenced areas in farmers’ fields.

Mohai Village, Karak Area

View existing LUT 3 installations.

Test drafts of the JAZPP assessment and monitoring forms. Also, make note of existence of soil with Vertic properties, perhaps include in Land Suitability classification criteria.

Theibeh, Muwaqar

View existing LUT 3 installation

Test draft of the JAZPP monitoring form and view successful LUT 3 intervention.

JCA area, Tafila

Visit JCA area

Test draft of the JAZPP assessment form and locate some possible new test sites.

JCA area, Ma’an

Visit JCA area

Test draft of the JAZPP assessment form and locate some possible new test sites and hold general discussions with farmer.

1.4.4 Start-up Workshop

1.4.4.1 Introduction

The start-up workshop should have been held in June 2000, right at the start of the extension period.  This proved to be impossible due to several reasons:

However, the workshop was eventually held in the University of Jordan on 12th October 2000.

1.4.4.2 Attendees

The principal speakers who participated in the workshop are listed below. The full list of attendees is presented in Appendix 10.1.  Not all people invited were able to attend. 

Organisation

Invited

Participated

 (CEC) Commission of the European Community

HE Mr J Moran,

Head of Delegation

Mr Fernando Garces de los Fayos

First Secretary

(MoA) Ministry of Agriculture

HE Z Zannoneh

The Minister

Mr M Khasawneh

Permanent Under Secretary

Dean, Faculty of Agriculture, UoJ

Dr M Shatanawi

Dr M Shatanawi

MoA, Director of International Cooperation

Mr J M Abu Mishrif

Mr J M Abu Mishrif

JAZPP Project Manager

Dr Butros Hattar

Dr Butros Hattar

JAZPP Former Project Manager

Prof Awni Taimeh

Dr Awni Taimeh

JAZPP Project Adviser

Mr A A Hutcheon

Mr A A Hutcheon

JAZPP Extension Specialist

Dr A Baqain

 

 

 1.4.4.3 Programme

The following Programme was set and adhered to.

Table 1.3               Start-up Workshop Programme

Session

Chairperson

Participants

08:30 – 09:00

Dr B Hattar

JAZPP Project Manager

University of Jordan

Dr M Shatanawi, Dean, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jordan

Mr F Garces de los Fayos, CEC, Amman

Mr M Khasawne, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture, Amman

09:30 – 10:30

Prof Awni Taimeh

Previous Project Manger

University of Jordan

JAZPP Background and Achievements

(English and Arabic)

Dr B. Hattar

Project Manager, JAZPP

 

 

JAZPP Extension: On-farm Test Programme

(English)

Mr A Hutcheon

Project Adviser, JAZPP

11:00 – 13:00

J. Abu-Mushrif

Director of International Cooperation

Ministry of Agriculture

 

JAZPP Extension: Working with Farmers

(Arabic)

Dr A Baqain

Extension Specialist, JAZPP

 

 

General Discussions

(Arabic)

Open

1.4.5 Discussions and Feedback

The following points were raised and discussed in the “open session”.  Several people took notes and the following is a compilation of those notes.  “Actions “ are the considered response of JAZPP to the points raised.

 

Raised by

Point

Response / Actions

1

Mr Jihad Abu Mishrif

There is a need for a Cost Benefit Analysis for each and every Intervention

Data on Project and Participant’s costs will be collected, and the data will be analysed in due course.

Existing forms from other departments, including the Department of Statistics, will be utilized or modified for use.

2

Mr Jihad Abu Mishrif

Mr A Naaimat

Dr A Baqain

 

Separate files should be opened in the Ministry of Agriculture for each site.

Information to be filed to include:

  • Data about the farmer
  • Data about the site
  • Data about costs of setting up the test
  • Running costs of the test to the farmer
  • Costs for monitoring

Much of the suggested data already being collected and collated, or will be collected during the monitoring process already designed.

 

Other data, costs etc., will be collected as indicated in Point 1.

3

Mr A Saleem

Mr A Qudah

Advice on supplementary irrigation for LUT 3, microcatchments

Field Officers will advise on the need and timing of any necessary supplementary irrigation.

No irrigation should be done until discussed with and cleared by the Field Officer.  The farmer should contact the Field Officer for advice if a visit is not imminent.

4

All farmers

Agronomic advice

Besides monitoring the test sites the Field Officers will be the source of advice on all agronomic and plant protection matters.

If the Field Officer cannot advise directly he will contact someone to supply the necessary advice.

5

Mr A Saleem

Mr A Qudah

Maintenance of the structure of the test site

Any requirements for maintenance of the site will be determined during the regular monitoring visits by Field Officers or brought to the attention of the Field Officer by the farmer.

Advice on what actions to take will be given by the Field Officer or he will contact someone who can give the necessary advice.

6

Many Participants

Several participants suggested use of cactus in place of, or along with, Atriplex.

The replacement of some Atriplex by species of cactus that are palatable to browsing animals will be considered by the JAZPP researchers and suitable species of cactus identified.  Use of cactus for protection was also discussed, see 8 below.

7

Many Participants

What will be the formal status and relationships with participants?

It is suggested that contracts are signed between participating farmers and, for the next 12 months JAZPP.  The contract would then pass to the Ministry of Agriculture as and when the Ministry assumes responsibility for the sites.

Contracts will be designed.

8

Mr A Qudah

Dr M Ajlouni

+++

Protection of the test sites and farmers’ responsibilities.

This issue is probably the most contentious of all issues raised. Protection of the sites has not been easy in the past and will not be easy in the future.

One of the most obvious dangers is that posed by passing herds of browse animals. Measures and suggestions to be investigated, tested and implemented are:

  •  Use of wire fencing, as presently used for LUT (Expensive)

  •  Use of natural hedges of “spiny”, unpalatable cactus plants around LUT 3 and possibly bordering LUT 4

  • Notices placed around test sites giving information as to what is going on and requesting that the site be respected and browsing animals kept off

  • Awareness campaigns informing all possible local organisations as to what the purpose of the site is and requesting the site be respected / protected

9

Several Participants

Is there cooperation with other agencies and projects

Cooperation with other agencies and projects is an ongoing process.  To date there is already cooperation / discussion with the following:

  • Jordan Cooperative Association

  •  Biodiversity project

  •  Badia programme

  •  Range Dept, MoA

10

Mr A Saleem

If there is no rain what will happen with the tests?

As stated by Mr Hutcheon as his final comment of his presentation:

“We know from on-station tests and trials that the technology / methods work, and we are certain that the current on-farm tests will confirm this.

However, without rainfall the tests will fail – but so will traditional methods of agriculture”.

11

Mr A Qudah

Expanding the tests to include earth dams

Sites for earth dams are much more difficult to find and construct.

However, JAZPP already plans to hold discussions with other agencies with a view to assisting them develop or rehabilitate any existing earth dams.

1.4.6  Conclusions and Actions Arising

Overall it was felt that the workshop was a success and people from all sides benefited.  It presented a forum where people outside of the University of Jordan were briefed on what JAZPP had achieved in the past, what the aims were for the immediate future and how these aims were being pursued.

Of particular benefit to Project were the contributions from the farmers that attended.  Some of these farmers had past experience of being involved with JAZPP test sites whilst others were to be participants for the Programme Extension period.

Some of the points raised by farmers would have been answered in due course as the interventions were installed and the Field Officers became active in the programme, but is was very useful to have the farmers raise the issues of how and where they would receive advice on the subjects of agronomy, plant protection and maintenance. 

New Issues Raised were:

 The participants from the Ministry of Agriculture contributed greatly by bringing up administrative and economic parameters that might not have been fully considered without their direct participation.

 Of particular relevance were:

 Annex 1: Site Assessment Form

JAZPP

Site Assessment - Component IVB

Date:

 

Site Number:

 

Intended LUT

 

 

Area:

North

Central

South

 Photos:

Location Name:

 

 

Plot Number:

 

Location Coords.:

 

east

 

North

Topo Map Sheet No.:

 

Topo Map Scale:

 

 

NSM Map Unit:

 

 

NSM SURVEY LEVEL

 

NSM Soil Classification

 

 

Study Level =

 

NSM Soil Series / Other

 

 

Study Level =

 

Elevation: (m)

 

Terminal Soil Infiltration Rates (mm/hr)

Precipitation: (mm / year)

 

 

Water Harvesting Area(Max)

 

Frosts: (Days/Year)

 

 

 

 

Planned LUT Size: (Dunum)

 

 

Water Infiltration Area(Min)

 

Stream Line Proximity: (m)

 

AWHC - Avail Water Holding Capacity

 

Soil Salinity (mS/m)

 

 

mm for profile (min)

 

Soil Rootable Depth: (cm)

 

 

 

 

Soil Surface:

Not Capped

Not Cracked

No Root Mat

Not Eroded

Vertic Properties (Cracks)

Slightly Capped

Slightly Cracked

Broken Root Mat

Slightly Eroded

   YES          NO               ND

Mod Capped

Mod Cracked

Thin Root Mat

Mod Eroded

Depth(         ) Width(             )

Strongly Capped

Slightly Cracked

Thick Root Mat

Strongly Eroded

Stone Cover:

Nil

Few

Common

Many

Rock Outcrop:

Nil           or give

 

%

 

Aspect (Sloping to)

 N  NNE  NE  ENE   E

  ESE   SE   SSE   S

  SSW  SW   WSW

W   WNW   NW   NNW

Slope

 

%

 

 

Shape

Flat

Convex

Concave

Irregular

JAZPP LU Classification:

 

 

 

 

PREVIOUS LAND USE

 

 

 

 

Cropped (List crops)

Yes   No

 

 

 

Grazing (Type)

Yes   No

 

 

 

Mixed Grazing / Cropped

Yes   No

 

 

 

Other use

Yes   No

 

 

 

Cultivation method

None

Hand Cult

Animal

Mechanical

Notes:

 

 

 

 

PRESENT LAND USE

 

(Years with this use)

 

 

Cropped (List crops)

Yes   No

 

 

 

Grazing (Type)

Yes   No

 

 

 

Mixed Grazing / Cropped

Yes   No

 

 

 

Other use

Yes   No

 

 

 

Cultivation method

None

Hand Cult

Animal

Mechanical

Notes:

 

 

 

 

FUTURE / PLANNED USE

Arable

Trees

Grazing

Other

Type (of crop etc)

 

 

 

 

Notes:

 

 

 

 

SOCIAL

 

 

 

 

Population Density

Low

Medium

High

 

Number of families

 

 

 

 

Farmer Family Size

Men

Women

Teenagers

Under 12

Number

 

 

 

 

Group Average Family Size

Men

Women

Teenagers

Under 12

Number

 

 

 

 

Farmer / Group Livestock

Sheep

Goat

Cow

Other

Number

 

 

 

 

Site Participant Type

Individual

Group

Community

Project

Total Land Holding (Dunum):

 

  % of Total Holding for LUT Use:

 

Access to water source:

Yes   No

Type of source:

 

 

Fencing

Exists

Required

Not needed

Needs Repair

For the Site:

1

Against site:

 1

2

2

3

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

More Info Required

Select

Reject

No decision

Continue

If selected:

Farmer / Leader Name:

XX

 

 

Intervention to be installed:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Decision Date:

 

Signature:

 

 

Annex 2: Microcatchment Test Site Inspection Visits

JAZPP

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Site No.:

 

0

 

 

Setup Date:

 

Project

Area:

 

North

 

 

First Rain Date:

 

Intervention

Location:

 

0

 

 

Plant / Seed Date:

 

Costs

LUT:

 

0

 

 

Est. Harvest Date:

 

 

CROP:

 

 

 

 

Area of Run-off

 Diamond

 

(JD)

Participant's Name:

 

XX

 

 

Est. Participant's Costs (JD)

 

Visit date:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As 2 Aug 00

Days since LUT set-up:

 

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

Days since first rain:

 

0

0

0

0

0

0

Days will self

Days since planting:

 

0

0

0

0

0

0

fill as dates

Days till harvest (if applic.)

 

0

0

0

0

0

0

Entered

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RAINFALL/ IRRIGATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pptn. From last visit: (mm)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Local

Accumulated Pptn. (mm)

 

0

0

0

0

0

0

Automatic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Irrig since last visit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Local

Accumulated irrig (mm)

 

0

0

0

0

0

0

Automatic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SOIL (Run-off Zone)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Surface (Moist / Dry)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Check

Surface Capping:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Check

Surface Cracking:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Check

Surface Erosion:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Check

Erosion Degree:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Check

Moisture Penetration (cm):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Auger

Soil Moisture Content:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sample

Vegetation Growth:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assess

SOIL (Collection Zone)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Surface (Moist / Dry)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Check

Siltation (Degree / mm)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Check

Surface Capping:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Check

Surface Cracking:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Check

Surface Erosion:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Check

Erosion Degree:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Check

Moisture Penetration (cm):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Auger

Soil Moisture Content:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sample

Vegetation Growth:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assess

INTERVENTION STATUS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rainfall damage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assess

Water-flow damage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assess

Livestock damage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assess

Human damage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assess

Other damage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assess

Time spent on maintenance:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hours/Days

CROP / VEGETATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Survival (%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Measure

Plant Height (cm)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Measure

New Shoots (cm)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Measure

Flowering

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assess

Ripening

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assess

Fruits

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assess

Weed Control

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assess

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assess

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Overall Assessment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assess

Harvest date if cropped